Environmental degradation during these present days has become a Global Issue. Degradation of Forest, Extinction of Wild Animals, diminishing Biological diversity and Raise of Temperature are the acute problems and the vital cause of Environmental degradation. It is a broad concept which includes pollution of various biological and physical components of the planet as a result of which the entire world is going to be damaged. After a careful study and deep penetration into the matter, the Global visionaries have come to a conclusion that, the conservation of Nature and Environment depends upon the Tribal Community, because, they are the born-Kings of the forest. To conserve or destroy the Nature and Environment is mainly the part of their lives. Hence, it is the high time to strengthen the lively-hood of the Tribal people residing in forest area. But, surprisingly the Tribal people are illiterate, ignorant and innocent. They do not have the idea on the gift of Nature and Environment; even they do not know what the nature is. As a part of their routine work they collect so many forest produces like sal leaves, sal seeds, siali leaves, regin, lac, mohua flower, honey, mangoes, jack fruits, tamarinds, prop roots, amla, black-myrobalan, Belaric-myrobalan, and fire woods etc., and sale in the local market after their own consumption. Moreover, they worship the Forest as their Goddess for which they can not leave the Forest area as the Tribal lively-hood is absolutely based upon the Forest and Culture. But, as regards to the present situation of the Forest, it is under threat. As a token of Timber business, the wood MAFIAs are persuading the Tribal people by showing the attraction of money and they are destroying millions and millions of Hectors of Jungle area where as the entire lion share benefits go to the MAFIAS goes to the MAFIAs. The people are also destroying the small trees for fencing purpose which is a barrier of Forest growth. Moreover, destroying the forest land, they are having ‘Podu’ cultivation. This type of tyranny activity of the people creates the misery for the forest as well as for the wildlife. Hence, the impacts of degradation of forest invites the frequent Natural calamities like Floods, Cyclones and Tsunamis and are observed in the form increasing Temperature, pollution of environment, climate change, threats to biodiversity, shortage of oxygen, Global warming and Soil erosion etc, which can be treated as man-made calamity. But it will continue to be so if we do not change the way we treat our wildlife. We owe so much to them. It’s only fair that we allow them their own space and freedom, so that they may continue to thrive. We domesticate some wild animals to become our livestock, providing milk, meat, and clothing. Wild canines developed over the years to become dogs, our hunting partners and bodyguards, our most effective alarm system in the night. Throughout those early ages, just like today, our world’s fruiting trees and forests were pollinated by bats and birds, squirrels and bees. And from these forests we built houses for shelter, fires to keep us warm, ships that would take us across oceans, books that carried our hard-earned knowledge and forests have provided us with plants that we cultivated became staple fruits and vegetables.
The Amazon rainforest alone produces about 20 percent of our planet’s oxygen, and yet it is constantly under stake for the hunting, mining, and the building of dams and roads. Many other rainforests are in even more dire stages of destruction from a complex matrix of human-market demands. In Africa and Asia some of our largest and most awe-inspiring creatures like tigers, rhinos and elephants are at the brink of extinction along with lesser-known species, some of which have already disappeared entirely. In 2014 poachers killed as many as 35,000 elephants so that they could sell their tusks for trinkets. Demand for shark fins for luxury dining costs the lives of roughly 100 million sharks each year. The Sumatran forests the only place on earth where rhinos, tigers, elephants, orangutans and all co-exists are being shattered at a rapid pace. The trade in endangered species has become a billion-dollar global market, ranking with guns and drugs as among the most insidious black markets. Many species that are not deliberately hunted and traded are vanishing because of habitat destruction and development.
Animals and Birds are the integral part of the ecosystem in our Earth. Each organism in the ecosystem plays an important role in supporting the ecological community and each organism in the ecosystem depend upon other organisms in the system to play its role. An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living organisms working together. The air, plants, animals, soil and even bacteria are interconnected. They work together to support the ecosystem. If the plants die, the small animals depending on them for food will die. If the small animals die, then the larger animals that eat the smaller animals are likely to die. So, the biodiversity of a community is very important because it adds a variety of food and minerals to the ecosystem. Without the biodiversity of plants and animals, human existence will never be possible. Since animals are an integral part of the ecosystem, removing a species or animals completely would upset the system and throw it out of balance. If an animal species is removed or becomes extinct, other animals that depend on the extinct animal for food or another purpose must look elsewhere. In other words, removing one animal or organism from the ecosystem upsets the equilibrium of the entire system. This means that if animals are removed, it will bring threat and disrupt the human. Plants and animals depend on each other for several reasons, including production of food, eradication of harmful pests and even propagation. Some interactions between plants and animals are detrimental, such as the serious injury or harm that occurs when animals eat toxic plants. Other relationships, however, like pollination, benefit both species.
The interaction that takes place between plants and animals is complex and occurs in every environment on the planet where both types of organisms coexist. The ecosystems ensured reliable weather and clean water.
Most relationships among Human beings, Animals and Plants are accepted through the food chain, which starts with the creation of energy for plants and some fungi via sunlight. Many plants and fungi perform photosynthesis, which means that they make their own food and energy. Plants form the base level of the food chain and serve as important source of food and nutrition for many types of animals. Most animals consume a variety of plants that supply them with all the nutrients and minerals they need. After consuming plants, many animals then become sources of food for other organisms higher on the food chain. Pollination is another important relationship between plants and animals as pollinators like bees and butterflies help to spread seeds and pollen from plants for reproduction. The innovations of wildlife have allowed us to develop technology that improves our lives and to create medicines that save millions of people annually. We derive blood pressure medication from viper venom and borrow insulin from the pancreases of pigs. Each year we borrow 500,000 horseshoe crabs from the wild to harvest their blood. They are later released back into the wild; the baby-blue blood can detect and immobilize bacterial contamination even at concentrations as low as one part per trillion. We should take time to remember what most cultures and generations have failed to realize that the appreciation of wildlife goes beyond merely what they have given us. Wild animals have their own inherent value, their own reasons for existing. There are many species capable of making tools, sharing innovations, and having complex thoughts and emotions. They have families like us, endure struggles and feel pain, experience, joy, and even play amongst them. If we need proof of animals’ intelligence and interspecies compassion, then we should see the incredible encounter between man and the wild Dolphin.
Yet in spite of all that wild animals have given us, in spite of how beautiful complex and awe-inspiring they may be, they are increasingly at risk and at the verge of extinction. Human beings are the dominant force and control 70 percent of the landmass on our planet. In this anthropological era, the human beings are the dominant force on our planet. Because of this unfortunate situation, it is estimated that there is 50 percent less wildlife on earth today than there was as recently as 1970. We are killing our wildlife and ecosystem in an unprecedented extermination that is now commonly referred to as “the sixth extinction”. So we have come to perhaps the most pressing question of our time as a global visionary that, what will happen to all lives on earth, if our wildlife becomes extinct? Without animals, there would be dysfunction within the system and human life would be disrupted. So, the existence of wild animals is very important and very essential to our existence and our foundation and to keep our world alive. The problem is so vast and urgent that many consider the loss of biodiversity to be the defining issue of our time. We are the generation at the crux, saddled with the responsibility to decide whether the creatures of this world will continue to survive or not. It is a question that will ultimately determine the course of our own story as a species, what would we do without forests, without air and without clean water? Despite a large number of endangered species headed toward extinction, however, there is still hope and possibility of protecting the wildlife.
The Ocean is one of the earth’s valuable Natural Resources. It saves the flora and fauna and provides food in the form of Fish and Shellfish-about 200 pounds are caught each year. It is used for transportation, travel and shipping. It provides a treasured source of recreation for Human beings. The Ocean provides a lot of valuable minerals like salt, bromine, magnesium, manganese, Copper, Nickel, Iron, Oyster, Crunch, Coral and Cobalt found in the deep Sea and drilled for crude oil. Near about 60 valuable chemical elements have been found dissolved in ocean water and most are in such dilute concentrations that commercial extraction is not profitable. The Ocean water serves as a source of food and valuable minerals. It is a vast freeway for commerce and provides a place for both recreation and waste disposal. Increasingly, people are turning to the oceans for the purpose of food procurement either for direct consumption or for commercial purpose by harvesting fish which is processed for livestock feeds. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of human protein intake comes from the oceans. Nevertheless, the food-producing potential of the oceans is only partly realized. Other biological products of the oceans are also commercially used. For example, pearls taken from oyster shell are used in jewelry, and shells and coral have been widely used as a source of building material. The oceans are also important for recreational use, as each year more people are attracted to the sports of swimming, fishing, scuba diving, boating, and waterskiing. Meantime, Ocean pollution has escalated dramatically as those who use the oceans for recreational and commercial purposes as well as those who live nearby, have disposed of more and more wastes there. The Ocean is an integral part of Human Society. It has been providing fish for thousands of years and important to meet the World’s economy for all of these years. The commercial fishing industries are taking best advantages of the ocean by obtaining the fishes for the recreation, consumption, fish oil and ornamental fish. The fishermen at present provide vulnerable quantities of fishes about 16% of the total World’s protein. The Fisheries are still enormously important to the economy and wellbeing of different Communities. The most phenomenon thing is that, Ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. The importance of the ocean to life of human beings on earth is that, it regulates the Earth’s Climate and world’s economy. The Ocean is an increasingly important source of Biomedical Organism with enormous potential for fighting different diseases. Hence, we must explore them in greater details to understand why we must keep the ocean healthy for the future generations and for the existence of the planet.
But, now, the people are constantly over-fishing and over hunting in the oceans, depleting the forests and hunting valuable species into annihilation. The list could go on at great length, but the simple fact is that many of the species on earth today wouldn’t be here if the Naturalists, artists and so many other dedicated people hadn’t worked and taken action to protect them. What would we do without fish in our oceans and without oxygen in air? Just decades ago the whaling industry brought the global number of humpback whales down by 90 percent, putting the species on the brink of extinction. It is nothing, but an inhuman attitude to destroy the Nature and spoiling the Environment. Today, because of continued conservation efforts, they are bouncing back and increasing in numbers.
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